厦英大辭典: WITH THE PRINCIPAL VARIATIONS OF THE CHANG

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What is Potassium Iodide (KI)?

KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine that can help blochồng radioactive sầu iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland, thus protecting this glvà from radiation injury.

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The thyroid gl& is the part of the toàn thân that is most sensitive khổng lồ radioactive iodine.

People should take KI (potassium iodide) only on the advice of public health or emergency management officials. There are health risks associated with taking KI.

KI (potassium iodide) does not keep radioactive sầu iodine from entering the body toàn thân và cannot reverse the health effects caused by radioactive iodine once the thyroid is damaged.

KI (potassium iodide) only protects the thyroid, not other parts of the body toàn thân, from radioactive iodine.

KI (potassium iodide) cannot protect the body from radioactive sầu elements other than radioactive iodine—if radioactive iodine is not present, taking KI is not protective và could cause harm.

Table salternative text và foods rich in iodine vày not contain enough iodine to bloông xã radioactive iodine from getting inkhổng lồ your thyroid gland. Do not use table salternative text or food as a substitute for KI.

Do not use dietary supplements that contain iodine in the place of KI (potassium iodide). They can be harmful & non-efficacious. Only use products that have sầu been approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

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How does KI (potassium iodide) work?

The thyroid gland cannot tell the difference between stable và radioactive iodine. It will absorb both.

KI (potassium iodide) blocks radioactive sầu iodine from entering the thyroid. When a person takes KI, the stable iodine in the medicine gets absorbed by the thyroid. Because KI contains so much stable iodine, the thyroid glvà becomes “full” and cannot absorb any more iodine—either stable or radioactive—for the next 24 hours.

KI (potassium iodide) may not give sầu a person 100% protection against radioactive sầu iodine. Protection will increase depending on three factors.

Time after contamination: The sooner a person takes KI, the more time the thyroid will have sầu khổng lồ “fill up” with stable iodine.Absorption: The amount of stable iodine that gets to lớn the thyroid depends on how fast KI is absorbed into lớn the blood.Dose of radioactive iodine: Minimizing the total amount of radioactive sầu iodine a person is exposed to lớn will lower the amount of harmful radioactive iodine the thyroid can absorb.

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Who can take KI (potassium iodide)?

The thyroid glands of a fetus và of an infant are most at risk of injury from radioactive sầu iodine. Young children and people with low amounts of iodine in their thyroid are also at risk of thyroid injury.

Infants (including breast-fed infants)

Infants have sầu the highest risk of getting thyroid cancer after being exposed lớn radioactive sầu iodine. All infants, including breast-fed infants need lớn be given the dosage of KI (potassium iodide) recommended for infants.

Infants (particularly newborns) should receive a single dose of KI. More than a single dose may lead khổng lồ later problems with normal development. Other protective measures should be used.In cases where more than one dose is necessary, medical follow up may be necessary.

Children

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that all children internally contaminated with (or likely to lớn be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take KI (potassium iodide), unless they have sầu known allergies to iodine (contraindications).

Young Adults

The FDA recommends that young adults (between the ages of 18 and 40 years) internally contaminated with (or likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take the recommended dose of KI (potassium iodide). Young adults are less sensitive sầu lớn the effects of radioactive sầu iodine than are children.

Pregnant Women

Because all forms of iodine cross the placenta, pregnant women should take KI (potassium iodide) to protect the growing fetus. Pregnant women should take only one dose of KI following internal contamination with (or likely internal contamination with) radioactive sầu iodine.

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Breastfeeding Women

Women who are breastfeeding should take only one dose of KI (potassium iodide) if they have been internally contaminated with (or are likely lớn be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine. They should be prioritized to lớn receive sầu other protective action measures.

Adults

Adults older than 40 years should not take KI (potassium iodide) unless public health or emergency management officials say that contamination with a very large dose of radioactive sầu iodine is expected.

Adults older than 40 years have the lowest chance of developing thyroid cancer or thyroid injury after contamination with radioactive iodine.Adults older than 40 are more likely to have sầu allergic reactions to lớn or adverse effects from KI.

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How is KI (potassium iodide) given?

The FDA has approved two different forms of KI (potassium iodide), tablets and liquid, that people can take by mouth after a radiation emergency involving radioactive sầu iodine.

Tablets come in two strengths, 130 milligram (mg) & 65 mg. The tablets have lines on them so that they may be cut into lớn smaller pieces for lower doses.

For the oral liquid solution, each milliliter (mL) contains 65 mg of KI (potassium iodide).

According to the FDA, the following doses are appropriate lớn take after internal contamination with (or likely internal contamination with) radioactive sầu iodine:

Newborns from birth khổng lồ 1 month of age should be given 16 mg (¼ of a 65 mg tablet or ¼ mL of solution). This dose is for both nursing and non-nursing newborn infants.Infants and children between 1 month and 3 years of age should take 32 mg (½ of a 65 mg tablet OR ½ mL of solution). This dose is for both nursing và non-nursing infants và children.Children between 3 và 18 years of age should take 65 mg (one 65 mg tablet OR 1 mL of solution). Children who are adult kích cỡ (greater than or equal to 150 pounds) should take the full adult dose, regardless of their age.Adults should take 130 mg (one 130 mg tablet OR two 65 mg tablets OR two mL of solution).Women who are breastfeeding should take the adult dose of 130 mg.

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How often should KI (potassium iodide) be taken?

Taking a stronger dose of KI (potassium iodide), or taking KI more often than recommended, does not offer more protection and can cause severe illness or death.

A single dose of KI (potassium iodide) protects the thyroid gland for 24 hours. A one-time dose at recommended levels is usually all that is needed lớn protect the thyroid gland.

In some cases, people can be exposed lớn radioactive sầu iodine for more than 24 hours. If that happens, public health or emergency management officials may tell you khổng lồ take one dose of KI (potassium iodide) every 24 hours for a few days.

Avoid repeat dosing with KI (potassium iodide) for pregnant & breastfeeding women & newborn infants.

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What are the side effects of KI (potassium iodide)?

Side effects of KI (potassium iodide) may include stomach or gastro-intestinal upset, allergic reactions, rashes, and inflammation of the salivary glands.

When taken as recommended, KI (potassium iodide) can cause rare adverse health effects related khổng lồ the thyroid gland.

These rare adverse effects are more likely if a person:

Takes a higher than recommended dose of KITakes the drug for several daysHas a pre-existing thyroid disease.

Newborn infants (less than 1 month old) who receive sầu more than one dose of KI (potassium iodide) are at risk for developing a condition known as hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone levels that are too low). If not treated, hypothyroidism can cause brain damage.

Infants who receive more than a single dose of KI should have sầu their thyroid hooc môn levels checked và monitored by a doctor.Avoid repeat dosing of KI lớn newborns.

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Where can I get KI (potassium iodide)?

KI (potassium iodide) is available without a prescription. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)external inhỏ External Web Site Icon has approved some brands of KI.

People should only take KI (potassium iodide) on the advice of public health or emergency management officials. There are health risks associated with taking KI.

More detailed information on KI (potassium iodide) can be found at the FDA Websiteexternal ibé.